This seminar will highlight different forms of information exchange: Formal and informal exchanges, direct and indirect exchanges and the unilateral disclosure of information and signalling. Information exchanges can be observed in horizontal and vertical relationships and in different organisational settings. We will investigate which forms of information exchange warrant closer scrutiny by competition authorities. Experts from OECD member countries will present cases and engage in hypothetical exercises with the participants. The recent EU case law will be presented and discussed.